Emission Control while Firing Ceramics
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) define a broad range of compounds that are considered air pollutants and which are emitted by a variety of industrial processes. There are many national and international regulations regarding the emission of VOCs, given their photochemical reaction in the presence of atmospheric gases to form ozone, which has shown to be harmful to the environment. Most countries have their own regulations to limit the emission of VOCs, such as the 1990 Amendment of the Clean Air Act in USA and the TA Luft in Germany. There are also international regulations that limit these and other pollutants’ emissions, such as the Gothenburg and Kyoto Protocols. In the case of the ceramic manufacturing industry, the emission of VOCs results from incomplete combustion and the volatilization of organic matter in the raw material, including binding agents, adhesives, and drying aids. The firing of ceramic products also results in the emission of other air pollutants, such as NOx, SOx, HF, HCl, CO, and CO2, among others.