Contribution of Ultrasonic Non-Destructive Testing for the Diagnostic of Tiled Floors Pathologies
The characterisation without damage of the integrity of structures and/or elements has become a major issue for many industrial sectors.
In this context, the French Ceramic Society – Technical Centre for Ceramics in France – and its subsidiary ICAR have initiated a research study to propose and develop innovative and non-damaging characterisation tests, applicable in laboratories or on site during diagnostic missions. This article focuses on the evaluation of the potential of ultrasonic Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) for the diagnosis of pathologies on tiled floors and their causes. Different assemblies composed of ceramic tiles implemented on a concrete support have been manufactured according to different tiles laying methods. Some assemblies have been subjected to cycled frost/defrost resistance testing in order to generate stresses that can cause defects.
The main advantage of this method is its ability to detect an adhesive or cohesive failure: lack of delamination, significant lack of adhesive mortar between the tile and the support, poor adhesion between the tile and the mortar. Considering that this method is sensitive to the nature of the ceramic tile (type Bla or BIII), it makes possible to determine the depth of a slab and the presence or absence of insulating or waterproofing underlays between tiles and concrete slab without performing a core sampling.